FRACTIONAL FLOW

Fractional flow, the flow that shapes our future.

Archive for the ‘Statens Pensjonsfond Utland’ Category

NORWAY’s PETROLEUM ECONOMY STRUGGLES WITH DECLINING DEBT PRODUCTIVITY

In this post I present a closer look into the developments in the Norwegian Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the Marginal Productivity of Debt (MPD) from households, non-Financials and municipalities.

Further a brief update on developments in credit/debt growth (for households, non-Financials and municipalities) in Norway. Sovereign debt and debts in the financial sector are not included in this analysis and for a complete analysis ALL DEBTS have to be included. Norway is a small and open economy that is exposed to developments in the global economy (like the price of oil) and its trade relations.

This post is an expansion to my previous post A closer Look into the Drivers of the Norwegian Economy’s recent Growth Success with some updates.

The post also presents a brief look at how recent years developments in the oil price and total petroleum extraction and sales have affected Norwegian GDP, credit/debt growth, the MPD and petroleum related expenditures and what this may portend for the near future.

NOTE: All financial data in this post are in the Giga Norwegian krone (GNOK; Billion NOK) unless otherwise specified. 6 NOK approximates now around 1 US dollar.

Figure 1: Chart above shows the development in the Norwegian Gross Domestic Product (GDP) split on mainland Norway (brown area) and petroleum and maritime activities (green area). The Norwegian petroleum activities are offshore within the Norwegian maritime economic zone. At present exchange rates Norway’s GDP for 2013 was around $500 Billion (nominal). The black line shows the development for total nominal disposable income for Norwegian households.

Figure 1: Chart above shows the development in the Norwegian Gross Domestic Product (GDP) split on mainland Norway (brown area) and petroleum and maritime activities (green area). The Norwegian petroleum activities are offshore within the Norwegian maritime economic zone. At present exchange rates Norway’s GDP for 2013 was around $500 Billion (nominal).
The black line shows the development for total nominal disposable income for Norwegian households.

The chart illustrates how the Norwegian GDP has been on a steady growth trajectory during the recent four decades and how petroleum activities, which started in the late 1960’s,  gained in relative importance of GDP developments. The effects of growth in the petroleum activities are documented to spill over into the mainland GDP.
In 2013 around 23% of Norway’s GDP was from petroleum related activities.

The acceleration in the Norwegian GDP from around 2004 have been identified to come from two main sources;

  1. The growth in the oil price that really took off from around 2004 spilled over to the mainland economy.
  2. The credit/debt growth from households, non-Financials and municipalities.
    This was likely triggered by the growth in the oil price as it revived consumers’ perception of improved outlooks to service more debt as disposable income grew and interest rates started to decline (cheap credit), which again was reinforced from the feedback from rising housing prices and growth in stock indices (equity growth).

As Norwegian petroleum extraction is in general decline and its gross revenues subject to oil price developments, the remaining force to sustain Norwegian GDP growth is to entice the households for continued growth in debt financed consumption.

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A CLOSER LOOK INTO THE DRIVERS OF THE NORWEGIAN ECONOMY’s RECENT GROWTH SUCCESS

In this post I present some hard data from the Norwegian economy, which in the recent decades show high correlations between total debt growth and the oil price. Presently the total debt growth from some sectors runs at an annual rate above 8% of GDP.

I also present my thoughts and observations about historical developments and what may lie ahead.

The economic undertows now suggest for a sharp downturn in the Norwegian economy. A deep look into the public data from Statistics Norway (SSB) reveals that it was the growth in debt, primarily acquired by the Norwegian households, that was and still continues to be a major and less acknowledged contributor to the recent growth success of the Norwegian economy.

The primer for the strong nominal growth in debt was likely the growth in the oil price starting back in 2004. The oil price has remained at a structurally higher level at around $100/bbl.

Developments in the Norwegian economy have been tightly linked to movements of the oil price and the value of petroleum exports.

  • It is widely recognized that the growth in the oil price spurred more investments for exploration and developments for petroleum from the North Sea.
  • With the increased Norwegian North Sea petroleum activities followed an acceleration in households, non financial and municipalities debt growth.

Figure 1: The stacked columns in the chart above show the development in the 12 Months Moving Totals (Annualized) for Norwegian exports split on petroleum (oil, condensates and natural gas [green columns]) and exports exclusive of petroleum [black columns]. The orange line shows the development in the 12 Months Moving Totals (Annualized) for total imports and the pink line the 12 Months Moving Totals (Annualized) for the trade balance. 6 NOK ~ 1 USD By clicking on the chart a bigger version opens in a new tab/window (goes for all the charts in this post).

Figure 1: The stacked columns in the chart above show the development in the 12 Months Moving Totals (Annualized) for Norwegian exports split on petroleum (oil, condensates and natural gas [green columns]) and exports exclusive of petroleum [black columns]. The orange line shows the development in the 12 Months Moving Totals (Annualized) for total imports and the pink line the 12 Months Moving Totals (Annualized) for the trade balance.
6 NOK ~ 1 USD
By clicking on the chart a bigger version opens in a new tab/window (goes for all the charts in this post).

Norway had a long history of running a balanced trade account and with increased incomes from petroleum exports during the recent decades, a big trade surplus.

As the data on imports are not broken down by sectors, there is good reason to believe that a major portion of the import growth originates from purchases of goods and services for the petroleum industry.

The value of Norwegian petroleum exports is now expected to decline in the near term with the decline in production, primarily of crude oil and by the end of this decade also natural gas.

Anyhow the data were whipped around for confessions, it turned out the Norwegian economy now appear to approach a major turn around.

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SPU, NOEN BETRAKTNINGER NOVEMBER 2011

Dette innlegget er primært en lek med ideer og tall, men kan også tjene som et referansemerke (”benchmarking”) for Statens Pensjonsfond Utland (SPU).

Med utgangspunkt i 2002 er det estimert hvor mye råolje (Brent kvalitet) SPU kunne kjøpt og hatt på lager, her kalt ”SPU Lager”. Fra 2002 er så statens totale inntekter fra petroleumsvirksomheten omregnet til fat råolje og løpende lagt til ”SPU Lager”.

Handlingsregelen er opprettholdt ved at 4 % av hva som er på lager ved hvert års start, er omgjort til en oljestrøm som løpende selges i markedet for å inngå i statsbudsjettet.

Et ”SPU Lager” ville bokstavelig talt kunne omtales som et oljefond.

I de siste tiårene har flere land vært gjennom en periode der gjeldsvekst og budsjettunderskudd totalt har vært i størrelsesorden 10 % (og mer) av bruttonasjonalprodukt (BNP). Det har med andre ord vært lånt tungt fra femtiden. Gjeldsveksten økte total etterspørsel. Ordet gjeldskrise preger nå mange overskrifter.

Gjeldsvekst og budsjettunderskudd øker også pengemengden i økonomiene og gir dermed prisstøtte til omtrent alt.

Det som vil komme er ulike tiltak for å få ned gjeldsgraden. Dette innebærer lavere privat og offentlig konsum. Dette betyr generelt en periode (et tiår?) med lavere offentlig og privat etterspørsel og vil også vises igjen hos selskaper i form av lavere inntjening. Siden mange selskaper er børsnoterte vil dette med tiden reflekteres i den neddiskonterte fremtidige inntjeningen, med andre ord aksjekursen.

Gjeldsgraden for enkelte land er nå på et nivå der økninger i renten på gjeld er mer økonomisk tyngende enn prisveksten på olje. Gjeldsgraden innebærer også at mange regjeringer nå må utøve den delikate balansen med å kombinere innstramningstiltak med økonomisk vekst.

I disse dager med ledere for store sentralbanker med en finger på CTRL tasten og en finger nær P tasten så er invitasjonen til global inflasjon på nødvendigheter som mat og energi et fait accompli. ”Papir” vil da falle relativt realverdier.

Med ”papir” mener jeg her valuta (penger), aksjer, obligasjoner etc.

På sett og vis er SPU å betrakte som en prosess for å konvertere energi (petroleum) til finansielle verdier, ”papir”. Denne vinklingen bringer SPU i konkurranse med termodynamikkens hovedsetninger.

Energi kan som kjent verken skapes eller ødelegges, kun omdannes og når vi bruker energi synker den totale energikvaliteten (loven om økende entropi).

Figur 1: Figuren viser den historiske utviklingen av SPU fra 1996 til 2010 og Finansdepartementets prognose for SPU mot 2020. De blå søylene viser markedsverdien av SPU og de røde søylene uttaket for offentlig konsum slik dette er nedfelt i handlingsregelen (4 % av markedsverdien av SPU). Utviklingen i oljeprisen (Brent Spot) er vist både i norske kroner og US dollar (MERK: Prisen i US dollar er multiplisert med 6 i diagrammet). GPFG; Government Pension Fund Global = SPU; Statens Pensjonsfond Utland.

En av forutsetningene for Finansdepartementets prognose for utviklingen av markedsverdien for SPU er at det globale finanssystemet og reell økonomisk vekst, slik vi nå kjenner disse, vil videreføres i overskuelig fremtid.

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Written by Rune Likvern

Thursday, 24 November, 2011 at 02:17

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